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  • Date: 23-01-2015, 14:35

“Hate Speech in the Media and Internet in Kyrgyzstan-2014”.Annual report has presented.

 23-01-2015, 14:35    Category: English, Reports & Researches, Media monitoring for hate speech, News


 “Hate Speech in the Media and Internet in Kyrgyzstan-2014”.Annual report has presented.

 

School of Peacemaking and Media Technology has presented its annual report "Hate Speech in the Media and Internet in Kyrgyzstan-2014”. The report was based on the analysis on hate content carried in the surveyed print, broadcasting and online media outlets published and issued in the country in Kyrgyz and Russian languages, which were classified according to perpetrators; victims; topics, genres, types of hate speech, stereotypes and clichés.

47 media outlets most popular among audience were selected for the study. Content analysis showed that more than one-third (36.1%) of media monitored contained hate speech. Almost 56% of all articles examined contained harsh and moderate hate language.

Classification by media types identified that in 2014 print media outlets included the majority of hate speech. 41.3% of newspapers monitored contained ad hominem attacks. Then follow online media, which 27.2% of hate speech rained down on the internet, and finally TV channels gave of hate speech 1% only.

In 2014 compared to the previous year, general trends changed a little, and hate speech vocabulary showed some growth. Distinctive trend of 2014 were retranslating stereotypes and quoting by reporters of xenophobic connotations expressed by speakers in the political arena, media texts with dubious quotes with no editorial comments.

 Author’s columns often contained harsh and moderate hate speech, direct and implicit forms for accusing an ethnic group of unwelcomed willingness to settle down in the region; creating negative image of an ethnic group by covering domestic conflicts and accusations of criminality.

Kyrgyz language newspapers top the list of hate speech producers; whereas online outlets top the list among Russian language media.

Hate speech in a wide range of topics

Hate speech creates negative public images of minorities, which proportion in media texts varies based on social and political events and media reflection. In 2014, hate speech was often contained in articles/stories covering discussions on historical and border topics, where ethnic groups were accused of criminality. Hate rhetoric was detected in topics covering the Kyrgyzstan’s reaction to relations between Russia and Ukraine and sanctions against Russia, participation of Kyrgyz nationals in the war in Syria, discussion about the Kyrgyz-Canadian JV Kumtor, investment projects of China in Kyrgyzstan, forthcoming accession of the country to the Eurasian Union.

                                       

Media interpreted what has happened and who is to blame for everything, by directing negative emotions of the audience to individual ethnic groups and social and political figures. Searching the enemy represented by other ethnic groups, accusing them of territorial ambitions, and, consequently, biased representation of ethnic groups remained the key subject of dangerous context.

Analysis by genres showed that in 2014 ad hominem attacks contained most in analytical articles. In 2014 analytical stories with ethnic stereotypes was more by 27%. On the other side the news became more tolerant. Hate speech was identified in 9% of news surveyed only. This figure is four times as little as in previous years.

The mix of social problems and ethnic rhetoric was another trend detected in public discourse, which discussed domestic, criminal and similar issues. However, often these were unconscious provocations by reporters. Media illiteracy of local reporters in combination with hostile context is one of the reasons of increasing hate speech in the media.

Victims of hate speech

In 2014, the main target of hate speech were the Chinese (27%) discussed by reporters in critical tone. The topics dedicated to the Chinese presence were published four times more than in previous year. The media portrayed the Chinese as the source of threat posed to the sovereignty of Kyrgyzstan, as competitors in the labor market, and as aggressive people forcing local women to give birth to their children.

 

 

 

Another group subject to adverse attacks is Russians. 16.9% of detected stories discussed this ethnic group in critical context, due to the ongoing discussion in some media outlet dedicated to the guilt of Russians for the historical past of Kyrgyzstan and due to the media war between Russia and Ukraine. The Kyrgyzwere the third target group (16.1%) of hate speech perpetrators, who were criticized more often in the context of political issues, e.g., saying that the Kyrgyz would lose their independence after accession to the Eurasian Union.

 

11% of references were about the Uzbeks, who are still the objects of regard in articles raising the issue of ethnic violence of 2010 and its consequences, as well as due to border incidents. Some Kyrgyz media portrayed the negative image of the Uzbek ethnic group as not intending to integrate into the Kyrgyz society.

8% of dehumanizing metaphors about the Tajikswere given in articles, where reporters wrote about them as of the originators of conflicts having territorial ambitions in the border zone.

If some groups are traditionally deemed as potential target of hate speech, Canadians were for the first time in 2014 attacked actively by local media due to the ongoing scandal around the gold-mining company "Kumtor”.5.14% of references to the representatives of Canada were identified in negative context. Almost the same number of negative messages, 5%, referred to the Dungans, as experts found in articles monitored. Also reporters used negative tone when talking about the Turks3.6%. Reporters emphasized their ethnicity by covering issues business and economic superiority.

The experts of the School of Peacemaking and Media Technology monitor and evaluate the extent of hate speech and xenophobia available in print, broadcasting, and online media of Kyrgyzstan starting from 2010. Experts evaluate the extent of hate speech by content analysis based on specified criteria such as tone of media texts, using of hate speech by subjects, tools containing ethnic intolerance ideas, stereotypes and lexemes imbedded into the mass consciousness, proportions of ethnic groups in media texts, classification by types of hate speech and its impacts for the society.

Analytics make lists of subject/perpetrators, victims of hate speech and detect priority genres and raised topics containing dehumanizing metaphors and retranslating stereotypes by method of comparative analysis.

This analytical report was prepared by experts’ team of the School of Peacemaking and Media Technology as part of ongoing research programs and project "Hate Speech Monitoring and Advocacy” implemented with support of the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives that made it possible to hold the study.

 

Brief version of report 2014 with findings and recommendations will be soon available on www.ca-mediators.net. More, please peacemakingschool@gmail.com


 

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